My research examines the ontological foundations of female spirituality and leadership in pre-colonial Kalabari-Ijaw society (in Southern Nigeria), with the aim of exploring the ancient wisdom behind these spiritual practices, and how the philosophical aspects of this spirituality may be adopted in solving modern-day societal challenges specifically, women empowerment and environmental justice. Indigenous Kalabari-Ijaw ontology situated women at the core of spirituality and human interaction. However, the institutionalization of colonial patriarchal systems distorted the ontology of Kalabari female spirituality and its functionality, creating a paradigm shift from women-centered spirituality and leadership to a system predicated on male hierarchy.  My research is an intersection between philosophy and social sciences, and is rooted in and oriented on a geographical space on its specificities. The broader quest of this study is to shine some light on the Kalabari notion of female or feminine spirituality and bring its ontology into dialogue with other African philosophical ideas. This is done most importantly to enrich our present understanding of the relationship between philosophy and spirituality. Read more